A Brief History of the Ministry of National Education
The idea of conducting education and training services by the state was the first developed during the period of II. Mahmut. The education and training services that had been previously carried out by the foundations were transfered to Maarif-i Umumiye Nezareti on 17 March 1857. And, a minister responsible for education and training services took his place in the parliament. With the establishment of the Ministry, the schools were divided into three levels: primary, secondary, and mekâtib-i fünün-i mütenevvia. (sıbyan, rüştiye ve mekâtib-i fünün-i mütenevvia)
The first legal regulation on our education system is the Regulation on Education (Maarif-i Umumiye Nizamname) issued in 1869. With this regulation, issues such as right to education, education management, determination of education system, education appropriations, teacher training and employment, provincial organization and examination systems were arranged. At the same time, the Parliamentary Assembly, consisting of two departments such as science and administrative , was established with the Grand Education Assembly (Meclis-i Kebir-i Maarif) and Provincial Councils (Maarif Meclisi) were established. In 1872, the Great Education Council was turned into a single assembly and the departments were arranged according to the teaching steps. These departments ; Mekatib-i Sıbyan (Primary School), Mekatib-i Rüştiye (Secondary School), Makatib-i Aliye (High School), Printing and Publishing departments.
A holistic structure was formed with the Regulation of Education and Organization of 1911 (Maarif-i Umumiye ve Teşkilatı Nizamnamesi). At the end of the Constitutional II. Monarchy period, the central organization of the Ministry of Education (Maarif Nezareti) consists of the following departments:• Tedrisat-ı İptidaiye Dairesi (Department of Primary Education)
During the years of the War of Independence, there were two education ministries : The Ministry of Education of Ottoman Government ( Maarif Nezareti), in Istanbul and Turkish Grand National Assembly the Ministry of Education in Ankara.
After the opening of the Turkish Grand National Assembly on April 23, 1920, the Minister of Education was also took part in the Council of Ministers, which consisted of 11 members established by the law no:3 and 2 May 1920
In 1923, the Ministry of Education was abolished in Istanbul. Undersecretariat, Department of Higher Education, Inspection Committee, Office of Copyright and Translation Office, Special Office have been added Directorate of Primary Education ( İlk Tedrisat Müdürlüğü), Middle Education Directorate (Orta Tedrisat Müdürlüğü), Hars (Culture) Directorate, Registry and Statistics Directorate (Sicil ve İstatistik Müdürlüğü) departments of Maarif Vekaleti in Ankara. And also Provincial Directorates was regulated Education Directorates and Education Officers
The Ministry of National Education has continued its activities under the names mentioned below since the establishment of the Republic.• 1923-1935 “Maarif Vekâleti” (Ministry of Education)
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